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Monday, August 2, 2021

Modern methods of teaching-a solution for ruining education system in Pakistan?

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Historically schooling have been predominantly focusing teaching instead of enabling a culture of learning, the process of providing mass education has been criticized by many as similar to mass production in factories. Children have been regarded as raw materials to be efficiently processed by technical workers (the teachers) who are the only source of filling knowledge in “empty” minds of the students!

Thinkers of radical pedagogy seek to identify, understand, and critically evaluate the effects, consequences, and power relations implicated by particular methods, modes, and environments of teaching and learning in formal/institutional contexts teaching and schooling. In 20th century thinkers such as Paolo Freire, Ivan Illich and others have highlighted the negative contribution of many formal educational strategies and practices. Freire’s book pedagogy of oppressed and Ivan Illich’s “deschooling society” explain how some formal schooling practices create the relations of domination and oppression. Some thinkers of education are of the views that schooling should be reformed, others argue that it should be transformed and still others call for de-schooling—they too have very strong reasons for their “call” and they logically answer the question that “ if not schools then what…!??

On the other hand, during last two decades, basis researches on process of learning has a lot of new implications for classroom environments and practices within classroom. In developed countries these implications tried to be bridged with classrooms and a more “learner- centered”, “knowledge centered” and “community centered” setup is emphasized.

Latest findings in the field of psychology devalue the mechanistic treatment of Reward and punishment in schools, basically these practices are based on behaviorist school of thought which says that learning is accelerated through positive or negative reinforcement, but this theory was criticized and replaced in psychology some 40 years ago with a newer “cognitive perspective”– which emphasis emphasize educators for cognitive feed back and instinct motivation of students, children are naturally motivated to know and they have a need of “awareness” in the same way as they feel hunger and thrust! but they feel tired when they don’t find materials and practices according to their interests and relevance . questions in their minds are either suppressed of not answered by replying them that “it is not a proper question or it is irrelevant” however no any question is irrelevant or improper but “we need to understand the question in deep” for this teacher must have “pedagogical content knowledge”– means they must know “what” they are teaching to “whom” and how that material can be made easily understandable. Actually the teachers who punish students physically or psychologically show that they don’t possess skills to satisfy and motivate students.

“Competition vs. cooperation” is another theme that is currently under debate, most of the teachers believe that competition is the only way to motivate students and they can’t distinguish between the healthy and unhealthy competition. However others are of the views that because of competition students don’t share knowledge and it affect their personality development and they become envy in their lives forever.

Most of the school also ignore individual learning needs by setting fix syllabus, time tables and teaching methodologies, how ever current researches suggest that there are particular learning styles- some can learn easily through hearing, some seeing and doing and still others can understand through association and body languages all these styles of learning particular teaching styles for which the teacher must know the individual learning needs of students and should mix the methods.

Learning researches has also implications for practices and procedures of assessment in the schools. Because the methods of assessment direct the students’ emphasis if we ask only factual information and objective questions the students will also give attention to facts and figures in the material instead of conceptually understanding. We also observe that most of the teachers give rewards and punishment on the basis of exams but they do not provide cognitive feedback to students in other words they tell “result” but do not give the “knowledge of result”.

If we thoroughly analyze the textbooks, we will find the “obsession” of our educators and course developers in making a long list of topics in each text book to provide surface knowledge but they don’t arrange concepts and facts around a core concept to made material conceptually understandable and appropriate to the age and development level of students. We may say the same thing in one line that “our text books are mile long and an inch deep” that’s why we observe that most of students forget lessons within one or two years, if not after exams.

Research has identified that there are multiple intelligences of students and each child has its own natural tendency towards particular intelligence some Children have good logical and linguistic intelligence, while other have towards musical athletic, teachers should use each intelligence during their lecture and should arrange classroom practices that help students to develop in their particular intelligences. Researcher also suggest that students have their own prior knowledge about the topics of perceivable world it may be misconceptions wrong belief but until that prior knowledge is not probed one can not transfer new knowledge to them, the role of teacher should be to probe and reconstruct that prior knowledge during lesson teaching.

Some of the critics of education system in Pakistan argue that the Schooling and education in modern days has limited to a “career counseling” and preparing of work force for indusial and organizational settings. They criticize that the current educational philosophy has nothing to do with wisdom and ethics (other than ethics in industrial and organizational setting) “how” and “what” we teach always depends on s on “why” we teach children, actually there is fault in our educational philosophy, this doesn’t mean that we should not train our generation regarding according to the needs of competitive modern world but there should not be a unilateral approach of emphasizing technical aspect of teaching there should be a balance with wisdom, ethics, civics—(not only religion) and we should also attempt to protect our cultures through education.

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  1. Salam Ya Ali Madad Dear Shah Sahib,
    I gone through your stuff ” Modern “methods of teaching-a solution for ruining education system in Pakistan”. It was nice effort about modren and traditional ways of teaching. But the missing thing is it was all about the thoughts applied mostly or rarely in our private educational system. it is more like analytical review of teaching methods instead of real solutions of todays educational sysytem applied in westren educational sysytem.

    But in last paragraph the advise given by you was appraisable, education system will also protect our values, ethics and cuture.According to my knowledge in PAK-TURK International Schools and Colleges, they are using pictorial based learning at early stages but interesting thing is that Turkish Language was also taught as core subject during primary classes.

    But in our own Sindh there are private and government schools where SINDHI subject is either not taught or not given importance.

    I like your effort but i suggest you that come up with practical experience/observation instead of theoritical stuff. Analyze the economic perspective of education, it is the economics which force humans to move forward.

  2. I think it is a nice write up about our schooling system, which indicates the basic points of schooling sustem also suggets the basis of teaching and monitoring.
    As Shah Sahab have indicated the “Competition vs. cooperation” and I think if we will apply once the teaching methods indicated in Mujahid Shah’s write up, we will see the change in our schooling sysyem as well as we will see that the basis and the foundations, which we have applied in our educational system as not only useless but they are as fossils of ancient time. We should counter the new challenges in our educational system as Shah Sahab have inducated that
    “most of the teachers believe that competition is the only way to motivate students and they can’t distinguish between the healthy and unhealthy competition,” I think it is a point of another idealogy of teaching and it will also provide different foundation to our schooling system.But the question is that when we will apply such rules and when we are going to improve our educational system.

  3. Dear Wasim
    thank you that you sent your comments on this post, I think it is necessary to reply your comment you have saild that “………..missing thing in this article is it was all about the thoughts applied mostly or rarely in our private educational system. it is more like analytical review of teaching methods instead of real solutions of todays educational sysytem applied in westren educational sysytem” how ever you have also said that you have gone through this article, but I don’t think! because in this article is the pure critic of educational systems and I have tried to suggest a need to bridge between current researches on process of human learning to the practices within schools and classrooms, I have not talked about the best ways of teaching that according to you are already practiced in private schools, if You think so please point out….!? basically this article is based on my research study “schooling as practice in sindh”

  4. Iam a teacher for last ten years and I feel that we all blame the teachers parents or the children for the worst educational condation but I have been thinking that whole the schooling system need to be reformed or trasformed if we realy want to educate our children in conceptual, philosophical, techinecal and ethical percespect.while reading this article I felt that the facts mentioned here are as my 10 years experience which I wanted to frame in to the paragraphs. realy our sylabus and subsequent text books are not rich enough to innitiate students’ instrinct motivation and after all the efforts of teachers. because these are lacking in conceptual framwork as this article has concluded that “the text books are mile long and inch deep” I have beed reading the political and criticism of the text books but I think we also need to think on its techinecality and frame work–what may be the content it as other issue……

  5. starting with the name of great allah!

    i m not educationist okay just a student. i respects whole heartly to all teacher anywhere in the world. for students at school are seemed to be like a group of seeps who tempered accordindly as we want to be? in the light of above discussion i think teachers should adopt technical approach for teaching of children means to push children towards research approach for example for primary level student what question should we expect: <what is this<what aim has in it<it is not obvious to teach something in written form or in verbally might be in gesture and finally i agreed with PAKISTAN TIMES research that provide the students an environment such automatically students feel for be there rather than get rid of from environment .

  6. there are some childerns belongs to me. these chirldern i do not like to get admitted to govenment or private schools because in these schools there is no pation to give a good education. The teachers of government schools are not regular, not well educated and they have been elected by source not in merit. When we come to the private schools. These kind of schools are been build only for business perpose. in these kind of schools education is like a game. these schools managment only knows how to make money the managment does not know that what is education and what is the value of education and how to prepare good student. this is main reason thatswhy i have made my own school to give good educatin to our and nighbours childern. i have done this all because may God give me succeess to give bright future to the childen to would bright the name of pakistan too. My E-Mail: alaijazgrouppak@yahoo.com Cell no: 0345-3844418

  7. I am Haleema Muhammad. I have done my B.com Msc(economics) B.ed n now i am student of M.ed.
    we need different methods not only written article we sould b practical but v have a very bad luck that stil nin 62 years we only present ideas we never do any thing practically.
    every educator gives his/her wievs n say we must do this n that but actually no one offer his/her duties to educate peopl freely.
    education remains just a buisiness in pakistan. the short cut way to earn more n more money by showing day dreams to innocent people.

  8. The story of education is miserable. Rich parents pay foy quality education in private schools. Today providing good education to children is a big problem. in private schools teachers are motivated to teach, even having low teaching experience. In government Schools teachers are not motivated. in any way we try to motivate our teachers such they teach properly. when appoint teachers we see their integrity with teaching. whether he is ready to teach. New methods of teaching facilitate to teachers to teach students in prper way.


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